|Units of Class 12th Chemistry||Topics |
|Unit 1||Solid State|
- Classification of solids based on different binding forces; ionic covalent, molecular, and metallic solids, amorphous, unit cell in two dimensional and three-dimensional lattices, electrical and magnetic properties, packing in solids, calculation of density of unit cell, packing efficiency, point defects, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, voids, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.
- Types of solutions, solubility of gases in liquids, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solid solutions.
- Colligative properties– relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, Raoult’s law, Van Hoff factor.determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass.
- Laws of electrolysis, kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis, Redox reactions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration.
- Dry cell– electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells
|Unit 4||Chemical Kinetics|
- Rate of a reaction ,factors affecting rates of reaction, order and molecularity of a reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life ,concept of collision theory ,Activation energy, Arrhenious equation
|Unit 5||General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements|
- Principles and methods of extraction: reduction electrolytic method and refining; oxidation, concentration, occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, iron, zinc and copper.
|Unit 6||Surface Chemistry|
- Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids,
- Tyndall effect, coagulation; Brownian movement, emulsions- types of emulsions, electrophoresis, colloidal state: properties of colloids; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids.
|Unit 7||p- Block Elements|
- Group 15 elements: General introduction, occurrence, electronic configuration, oxidation states, preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, trends in physical and chemical properties; oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic forms; preparation and properties of phosphine, compounds of phosphorous: halides (PCI3, PCI5)
- Group 16 elements: General introduction, oxidation states, occurrence, electronic configuration, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation, dioxygen: properties and uses; ozone ,classification of oxides. Sulphur – allotropic forms; preparation, preparation, compounds of sulphur: uses and properties of sulphur dioxide
- Group 17 elements: General introduction, oxidation states, occurrence, electronic configuration, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, uses and properties of chlorine and hydrochloric acid.
- Group 18 elements: General introduction, occurrence, electronic configuration, trends in physical and chemical properties and uses of some important compounds.
|Unit 8||d and f Block Elements|
- General introduction, , characteristics of transition metals, electronic configuration general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, metallic character, ionic radii, catalytic property, colour, magnetic properties, alloy formation interstitial compounds. Preparation and properties of KMnO4 and K2Cr2O7
- Lanthanoids– electronic configuration, chemical reactivity, oxidation states, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
- Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
|Unit 9||Coordination Compounds|
- Coordination compounds: Introduction, coordination number, ligands, colour, magnetic shape and properties ,IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding.
|Unit 10||Haloalkanes and Haloarenes|
- Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, physical and chemical properties, nature of C –X bond, Optical rotation ,mechanism of substitution reactions.
- Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions .Uses and environment effects of –trichloromethane, dichloromethane, iodoform, tetrachloromethane, DDT, freons,
|Unit 11||Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers|
- Alcohols: Nomenclature, physical and chemical properties, methods of preparation, identification of secondary, primary, and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration and uses of methanol and ethanol.
- Phenols: Nomenclature, physical and chemical properties, methods of preparation, electrophilic substitution reactions, acidic nature of phenol, uses of phenols.
- Ethers: Nomenclature, physical and chemical properties uses ,methods of preparation.
|Unit 12||Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids|
- Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, nature of carbonyl group, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, nucleophilic addition.
- Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties acidic nature; uses
|Unit 13||Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen|
- Amines: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, classification, structure, uses, physical and chemical properties, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.
- Cyanides and Isocyanides
- Diazonium salts: Preparation Method, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
- Carbohydrates- Classification, monosaccharide, D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides importance. Vitamins and their Classification and function.
- Proteins– Elementary introduction of – amino acids, polypeptides, peptide bond, proteins, secondary structure, primary structure,tertiary structure and quaternary structure, denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
- Hormones– Elementary idea
- Nucleic Acids: Deoxyribonucleic acid and Rino nucleic Acid.
- Classification– Natural and synthetic, copolymerization, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation).
- Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, rubber, bakelite; Non- Biodegradable and Biodegradable polymers.
|Unit 16||Chemistry in Everyday Life|
- Chemicals in medicines– tranquilizers, analgesics, antiseptics, antimicrobials, disinfectants, antifertility drugs, antacids, antibiotics, antihistamines.
- Chemicals in food– preservatives, elementary idea of antioxidants, artificial sweetening agents,
- Cleansing agents– detergents and soaps, cleansing action.